Even if the door of the new millennium draws near, the zampogna still exists in European and Italian areas. But the Italian situation is now critical. The instrument can still be found in central-southern areas, such as Sicily, while in the northern areas it is nearly extinguished. Its characteristics vary from a morphological point of view. It can have from one to three drones which perform the typical fixed notes, one or more chanters (the English terminology is commonly used) on which the melody is played, and a bag made in leather or rubber or sometimes of goretex which represents the reserve of the air.
The sound is produced by the reeds which can be simple or double according to the models
Ciaramedda (Sicilia - Italia)
Sicilian zampogna has two chanters with cylindrical perforation and simple reeds. The bag is almost always in goat or sheep leather.
Molisana (Molise - Italia)
Molise zampogna has two chanters with conical perforation and it has two bass drones, one of which is sonorous (both are sonorous in Basilicata zampogna): chanters and bass drones have double reeds. It is is becoming popular the Ricci kind, whose bass drone can perform two notes. This innovation brings a great harmonic enrichment to the zampogna.
Surdulina (Calabria - Italia)
It is a zampogna played mainly in Calabria that has two chanters of cylindric perforation and simple reed.